Topsoil is the most exterior layer of soil, usually the top 2 inches to 12 inches from the surface. It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and is where most of the Earth’s basic biological life activity originates. The actual depth of the topsoil layer can be measured as the depth from the top of the first densely packed soil layer known as subsoil.Topsoil provides an environment rich in nutrients, minerals, and water where plants and crops concentrate their roots to acquire most of their nutrients.
Without topsoil, life on this planet is impossible.
In recent years major environmental concern about topsoil erosion around the worlds is very alarming. On every continent, topsoil layer every year is depleted because of excessive agricultural activity, blown or washed away by natural disasters. On current trends, the world has about 60 years of topsoil left. The US alone loses about 3 tons of topsoil per acre per year.
Healthy soil should consist of about 45 percent minerals, 5 percent organic matter, 25 percent water, and 25 percent air.
If you are planning to buy topsoil for your garden or landscaping project choosing the right product is the key to success, you’re likely to have trouble growing plants if you don’t have the right conditions.
One of the biggest causes behind plants that fail to grow is the type of soil being used.
Healthy topsoil should consist of about 45 percent minerals, 5 percent organic matter, 25 percent water and 25 percent air.
When selecting topsoil, the common rule is that the darker shade represents better quality. This is not always the case. Before you choose soil for your garden, it can help to understand how different types are identified.
Classification is often based on the texture and size of the particles that make up the soil, as well as on the mineral and nutrient content of each type. While the majority of soil is made up of clay, silt and sand, the ratio of these materials can greatly impact the properties of the soil, as well as its ability to support plant life. Soils can also be identified based on their level of acidity (pH scale), which is measured on a range from 1 to 14. Though most plants prosper when acidity measures between 6.2 and 7.2, most types of soil have an average pH of 5.
By adjusting things like moisture preservation, pH and mineral distribution, people can transform topsoil to create a more hospitable environment for the type of plants you want to grow.
What Topsoil contains?
Sand Clay and Silt
The topsoil also consists of a layer of mud, clay, silt and sand. Clay is present as fine particles that cluster when wet, have a low permeability to water and cause water logging. Silt is a sedimentary material that is made of fine particles that get easily displaced by water. Sand is coarser than silt, and is useful for plants and crops that require low water. Mud comprises of humus, silt, sand and clay. It is rich in nutrients, retains water, but prevents water logging.
Topsoil contains billions of bacteria , mites, insects, worms, protozoa, fungi, and algae. Bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be easily used by plants, which recycles nutrients from decomposing litter and dead organic matter and plays an important part in the food chain on Earth.
Topsoil is made up of natural, Carbon-rich compounds and substances that support plant life. Organic substances are broken down in the topsoil to produce humus. Humus acts as a glue and brings together all other components of the topsoil.
Air (oxygen) is a component of soil, which provides a helpful environment for aerobic bacterial actions. Aerobic bacteria decompose dead organic material into vital soil nutrients. Decomposing takes place with the existence of oxygen, which is provided by the air.
Water in topsoil functions as a transporter of minerals and nutrients also facilitates the movement of soil Microorganisms. Dissolved essential nutrients are carried by water to plants via their roots maintain proper health of growing plants.
Minerals & Nutrients
Phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) are common topsoil minerals and nutrients absolutely essential for life. Minerals are the main constituents of the upper layer of earth soil. Topsoil minerals are originated from their bedrock parent material, such as limestone, gneiss, quartz and granite.
Sparta Block provides the best quality topsoil available on the market. Landscape and masonry contractors, as well as homeowners, can buy with confidence because we always supply the best products with the best price and service.
Located in northern New Jersey, we service locally bulk delivery for Sussex County, Passaic County, Bergen County, Morris County, Essex County and Hudson County.
Our dump trucks can deliver up to 20 yds. of Topsoil per truck.
For pickup Topsoil by contractors or homeowners please visit our yard in Sparta, NJ
If you have any question call our main line 973-729-6686, we are always ready to help our customers!